NMOSD is a rare
autoimmune disease that impacts the central nervous system

NMOSD, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

Artwork of a patient with NMOSD, their loved one, and a person walking a dog; there are also multiple astrocytes

NMOSD is typically identified by antibodies associated with a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4)

While the root cause of NMOSD is unknown, most people with the disease test positive for anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies (anti-AQP4 antibody positive). Others with NMOSD may not have these autoantibodies (anti-AQP4 antibody negative) or may instead have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies.

The symptoms of all types of NMOSD can include:

  •  Blurry vision or blindness in one or both eyes
  •  Painful spasms
  •  Weakness or paralysis in the legs or arms
  •  Numbness or loss of sensation throughout the body
  •  Sleeping problems
  •  Persistent hiccups
  •  Persistent nausea/
    uncontrollable vomiting
  •  Bladder or bowel dysfunction

Not everyone experiences the same symptoms. NMOSD attacks can come on suddenly and may result in permanent disability. However, there is hope, as symptoms may be managed with long-term therapy.

While NMOSD is a chronic condition, it can be managed with appropriate treatment

NMOSD by the numbers


people in the US

are estimated to be living with NMOSD


years of age

median age of onset of NMOSD

Some people are at greater risk than others for developing NMOSD

Women are about 2 to 8 times more likely to develop NMOSD than men

People of African and Asian descent have severe attacks at onset more frequently compared to those of Caucasian descent